AUSTIN, Texas (KXAN) — “Horrific” is one of the ways leaders nationwide characterized a deadly mass shooting at an elementary school in Uvalde, Texas, on Tuesday. And, in addition to prayers and comments on the tragedy, Democratic lawmakers also called for changes as details of the massacre began to unfold.

“The moment to stop Uvalde was right after Sandy Hook. After Santa Fe High. After El Paso,” tweeted Beto O’Rourke, who paused a presidential campaign back in 2019 when a shooter opened fire in a Walmart in his hometown.

Each time a mass shooting happens, similar calls ring out. Here’s a look at what has happened after shootings that garnered nationwide attention.

After Sandy Hook

In 2012, a 20-year-old walked into a Connecticut elementary school and opened fire, killing 20 first-graders and six educators.

Congress introduced several gun control measures immediately following the Sandy Hook massacre. All failed. Among the proposals were an assault weapons ban and criminal background checks for guns sold over the internet or at gun shows. The National Rifle Association at the time also advocated for putting armed guards into schools.

On Tuesday, the Associated Press reported that U.S. Sen. Chris Murphy, who represents Sandy Hook, took to the floor to implore his colleagues to pass legislation to address gun violence.

“I’m here on this floor to beg — to literally get down on my hands and knees and beg my colleagues — find a path forward here. Work with us to find a way to pass laws that make this less likely,” he said.

After Las Vegas, Parkland

The year 2018 saw another mass shooting at a school in Parkland, Florida, that left 17 dead. The year before, a gunman had also shot and killed 61 people at a music festival on the Las Vegas Strip.

President Donald Trump urged the Justice Department to ban devices like the one the Las Vegas shooter used: bump stocks, which allow semi-automatic weapons to fire without stopping. A ban took effect in 2019.

Texas changes after Santa Fe

After a 17-year-old killed 10 people in Santa Fe, Texas, Gov. Greg Abbott called for a series of roundtables and laid out extensive school safety plan recommendations.

Lawmakers also passed bills in response, including one to create a Texas Child Mental Health consortium, and to require school districts to set up “threat assessment teams” of people trained to spot red flags.

Texas 2021 gun laws

In 2021, Abbott signed a number of gun-related bills into law.

As of August, Texans older than 21 were allowed to carry a handgun in public without a permit under House Bill 1927.

There are exceptions for felons and those younger than that, and buyers still need to pass a gun-store background check. Below are other laws that went into effect:

  • Senate Bill 19: Creates a prohibition on contracts with companies that discriminate against the firearm and ammunition industry.
  • Senate Bill 20: Allows hotel guests to have guns and ammunition in their rooms.
  • Senate Bill 550: Permits a person to carry a gun in any type of holster.
  • House Bill 957: Exempts suppressors made in Texas from federal regulations.
  • House Bill 1500: Makes firearms and ammunition sellers and manufacturers essential businesses.
  • House Bill 2622: Creates a “Second Amendment Sanctuary State” in Texas, protecting Texans from new federal gun control regulations.